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Top Machine Learning Interview Questions & Answers [2024]

In this day and age, Machine Learning is encountering an unprecedented boom, transfiguring industries and moulding the technology’s future. As data becomes progressively abundant, ML algorithms are gaining immense traction in making sense of intricate patterns and providing invaluable insights. From finance to healthcare, Machine Learning transforms decision-making procedures, optimises operations, and improves user experiences. 


In dubiously, the rise of deep learning and neural networks has transcended ML to new heights, allowing breakthroughs in NPL, image recognition, and autonomous frameworks. Businesses leverage ML to get a competitive edge, saddling predictive analytics for better strategic planning, execution, and customer engagement.


Innovations in computing power, algorithm advancement, and data accessibility propel the surge in Machine Learning applications. As sectors/industries clinch automation and data-centric decision-making, the requirement for well-versed ML professionals is skyrocketing. Oddly enough, the future promises an even greater amalgamation of ML into daily routine, with innuendo for customised service, efficient resource utilisation, and innovative problem-solving. 


As per the Future of Jobs Report 2023 findings, “the demand for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning specialists is expected to grow by 40% or 1 million job vacancies will be created, as the AI and ML presses continue industry transformation.  Certainly, the Machine Learning boom is not a trend but a metamorphic force shaping the digital world. If you are an IT professional willing to ace a Machine Learning interview, below is a list of Machine Learning interview questions for your reference. Continue reading to know. 


Table of Content



Machine Learning Interview Questions for Freshers


  1. Is Machine Learning Different from General Programming? If yes, then how?We typically work with data and logic to generate solutions in general programming. Nevertheless, in machine learning, we have both data and solutions, enabling the machine to master their underlying logic. This learned logic can then be implemented to address future questions. Additionally, ML serves as a valuable tool, especially when coding explicit logic is daunting and challenging.


  1. Name some real-life applications of Clustering Algorithms.The clustering technique can be utilised in numerous data science domains, for example, customer segmentation, image classification, recommendation engine, etc. Amongst all, one prevalent utilisation is in Market Research and Customer Segmentation, which is then used to pinpoint a specific market audience/group to foster business expansion and enhance profitability.


  1. As our attention is mostly directed towards machine learning software, how can we integrate Machine Learning into hardware?For the integration of ML into hardware, we need to construct machine learning algorithms by utilising System Verilog, a hardware development language and subsequently programming them onto FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to implement Machine Learning in Hardware.


  1. Clarify the concepts of One-hot encoding and Label Encoding and elucidate their impact on the dimensionality of a provided dataset.One-hot encoding is the representation of categorical variables as binary vectors, whereas Label encoding transforms labels/words into numeric form. The utilisation of one-hot encoding results in a massive increase in the dataset’s dimensionality, as it creates a new level for every level in the categorical variable. On the contrary, Label Encoding doesn’t impact the dimensionality of the dataset; rather, it encodes the levels of a variable as 1 and 0.
  1. What is a Hypothesis in Machine Learning?The term “Hypothesis” is commonly employed in the discipline of supervised machine learning. In this context, we can work with independent features and target variables, aiming to find an approximate function mapping from the feature space to the variable. This “appropriate mapping” is popularly known as a hypothesis.
  1. Are you aware of ETL in SQL?

    ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) involves a sequential three-step procedure. Initially, the process begins by extracting the data from sources. Once the data is collected, it is then transformed into a structured format in the second phase. Lastly, we need to load this data into tools, helping us find insights.


Machine Learning Interview Questions for Experienced Professionals


  1. Describe the SMOTE technique employed for addressing data imbalance. 

    SMOTE, or Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique, is a strategy typically used to tackle data imbalance within a dataset. This approach includes generating new data points within the minority classes via linear interpolation using existing data points. While this method offers the advantage of avoiding training the model solely on the same data, it comes with a drawback, which is- “The introduction of unwanted noise into the dataset, potentially causing a detrimental effect on the model’s performance. 

  1. Do you know anything about Python’s key features? 

    Firstly, Python is amongst the popular programming languages utilised by scientists and AIML experts. This popularity is because of the key features of Python:

  • Due to clear syntax and readability, it is easy to learn.
  • It makes debugging easy, as it is simple to interpret. 
  • It can be used in various languages. 
  • It is free and One-source.
  • It supports concepts of classes, as it is an object-centric language. 
  • It is simple to amalgamate with other languages, for example, C++, Java, and more.


  1. What does PEP 8 refer to? 

    PEP 8, also known as PEP8 or PEP-8, is a set of guidelines established in 2001 by Barry Warsaw, Guido van Rossum, and Nick Coghlan for writing Python code. Its primary goal is to improve the readability and consistency of Python code. The term “PEP” stands for Python Enhancement Proposal, and it represents a documentation series suggesting the latest features for Python, giving detailed insights into multitudes of aspects of Python development, which include design and style, for the broader community. 

  1. How to set up SQL? 

    SQL, or Structured Query Language, is not something that you can set up on your own. To execute SQL queries, we need to install a relational database management system (RDBMS). There are many different options for RDBMS, which include:

  • SQL ServerHence, to utilise SQL queries, you must install any of these relational database management systems.


  1. Have you heard about a unique key in SQL? What is it? 

    A Unique Key serves as a constraint in SQL. Before comprehending what exactly a primary key is, let’s first learn what constraint in SQL is. Constraints are a set of rules enforced on data columns within a table, dictating the permissible types of data for entry. T. Constraints can be implemented either at the column level or the table level. Whenever we give the constraint of a unique key to a column, this implies that the column cannot contain any duplicate values. Simply, each and every record present in this column has to be distinctive/unique. 

  2. What is SQL injection? 

    SQL injection is a prevalent hacking method widely utilised by black-hat hackers to illicitly acquire data from tables or databases. For instance, when you visit a website and give in your user details and password, a hacker may inject malicious code to retrieve this sensitive data directly from the database. If your database contains any imperative information, it is always better to safeguard it against SQL injection attacks.


To Make the Long Story Short


In this rapidly evolving digital era, staying abreast of machine learning developments is not just essential for professionals but also indicative of a wider societal shift towards innovative and advanced technologies. As we steer this era of ML proliferation, the ability to utilise its potential becomes exceptionally important for both industries as well as individuals.  


Also, the future of ML looks exceptionally promising, as it has become the need of the hour! If you are all set to create a meaningful impact on the globe, accelerating your Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning skills can be helpful. Hero Vired offers a broad range of world-class programmes in AI and ML, including the Accelerator Program in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, where you can master languages such as Python, PyTorch, NumPy, Matplotlib, and Seaborn, which are essential to stand tall in this competitive digital scenario. 







To kickstart your career in machine learning, you need to follow the six steps below. 

  • Master to code with Python.

  • Get admission to a Machine Learning course.

  • Give a try to a personal machine learning project.

  • Learn how to collect the right data.

  • Join online Machine Learning communities or take part in various AI & ML contests.

  • Apply to Machine Learning internships and jobs.

For theoretical ML questions, you will be asked a main question, and the interviewer will have follow-up questions around 1-5 based on the main question. While answering, ensure that you elaborate on your answer with the help of examples.

Yes, there are four basic types of Machine Learning:

  • Supervised learning, 

  • Unsupervised learning, 

  • Semisupervised learning 

  • Reinforcement learning. 

The kind of algorithm data scientists select typically depends on the nature of the data. 

Not only should Machine Learning Engineers have in-depth knowledge of how to code and develop in programming languages, for example, Python, Java, and C++, but many machine learning engineers also find it helpful to learn and master the following machine learning tools and resources, such as TensorFlow. Spark and Hadoop. R Programming.
Data structures and algorithms play an important role in deep learning and machine learning fields. They are typically utilised to effectively store and process hefty data, which is important for training and deploying machine learning models.

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