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What is Strategic Management? Definition, Process, Benefits, and Examples

In the intricate symphony of organisational success, strategic management emerges as the master conductor orchestrating every nuanced move. It’s the compass guiding businesses through uncharted waters, the architect of calculated decisions shaping the destiny of enterprises.


Beyond a mere set of methodologies, strategic management is a dynamic philosophy, an ever-evolving philosophy that encapsulates vision, foresight, and adaptability. It’s the art of envisioning the future while meticulously navigating the currents of the present, threading together innovation and pragmatism in a seamless tapestry.


At its core, strategic management is the compass that aligns an organisation’s objectives with the intricate weave of its resources, markets, and aspirations. It’s the fine balance between seizing fleeting opportunities and constructing resilient frameworks that withstand the test of time.


Join us in exploring this compelling landscape where strategy meets execution, where planning and agility dance hand in hand. Delve into the realms of strategic management—a realm where businesses transcend the ordinary to script their narratives of enduring success.


Table of Contents:



What is Strategic Management?


Strategic management stands as the linchpin of organisational success, encapsulating the deliberate planning, execution, and adaptation of strategies to propel an entity towards its envisioned goals and objectives. It orchestrates a structured approach that encompasses a spectrum of activities, amalgamating foresight, analysis, decision-making, and implementation. At its core, strategic management revolves around the systematic development and deployment of plans tailored to steer an organisation towards desired outcomes.


Why is Strategic Management Important?


Strategic management plays a pivotal role in guiding organisations toward their long-term objectives. It fosters adaptability within organisations, allowing them to navigate external environments and embrace change effectively. Through strategic management, organisations can assess their current performance and strategise ways to enhance it.


Developing a robust strategy based on comprehensive market research not only sustains competitiveness but also unveils avenues for growth. Furthermore, strategic management streamlines operations by aligning organisational goals with available resources.


The impact of strategic management on businesses is profound. A well-executed strategy can bolster profitability, fortify competitive edges, nurture robust customer relationships, and amplify organisational efficiency and productivity.


Moreover, it aids in attracting and retaining talented personnel, identifying and cultivating new markets, and ensuring the long-term viability of the business. Successful strategic management contributes to heightened efficiency, informed decision-making, and elevated employee morale. Ultimately, it equips businesses to thrive and excel in their respective markets, fostering success and competitiveness.


Strategic Management Example


Consider a scenario where a for-profit technical college aims to bolster both new student enrollment and the graduation rates of enrolled students within a span of three years. The objective is to establish the college as the top choice in terms of value among five similar institutions in the region, ultimately driving increased revenue.


In this context, strategic management involves ensuring sufficient funds for the development of cutting-edge classrooms and the recruitment of highly qualified educators. Moreover, the college dedicates resources to marketing, recruitment efforts, and the implementation of strategies to enhance student retention. Periodic evaluations by the college’s leadership gauge the attainment of these goals.


Benefits of Strategic Management


Strategic management stands as the cornerstone of organisational success, offering an array of tangible and intangible benefits that fortify an entity’s position in the competitive landscape. This systematic process extends beyond mere planning; it serves as a catalyst for growth, resilience, and adaptability in an ever-evolving business milieu. Below are some benefits of strategic management:


Fostering Future-Oriented Planning


  • Clarity and Direction: The strategic management process lays down a comprehensive roadmap, providing clear direction and actionable plans. This clarity ensures alignment among employees and leaders, fostering a collective understanding of the organisation’s trajectory.


  • Efficiency and Cost-effectiveness: With a well-defined strategy in place, resources are allocated judiciously. This enhances efficiency and cost-effectiveness, ensuring that endeavours are aligned with overarching goals.


Dynamic and Adaptable Approach


  • Continuous Evaluation and Adjustment: Recognizing the dynamism of markets, strategic plans undergo continual evaluation and adjustment. This agile approach allows organisations to pivot swiftly in response to changing market outlooks, staying ahead of the curve.


Financial Benefits


  • Increased Market Share and Profitability: A well-crafted strategic plan often leads to increased market share and profitability by leveraging strengths, capitalising on opportunities, and mitigating risks.


  • Risk Mitigation: Strategic management aids in identifying and mitigating legal risks, safeguarding the organisation’s interests and reputation.


  • Enhanced Revenue and Cash Flow: Efficient strategies contribute to improved revenue streams and cash flow, optimising financial performance.


Non-Financial Benefits


  • Board of Directors Relief: Strategic management alleviates the burden on the board of directors by providing a structured framework for decision-making, thereby streamlining responsibilities.


  • Objective Review and Assessment: It enables an objective review of the organisation’s performance, fostering a culture of continual improvement and learning.


  • Progress Measurement: Through defined metrics and benchmarks, strategic management allows organisations to measure progress over time, facilitating course corrections and celebrating milestones.


  • Big-Picture Perspective: It offers a panoramic view of the organisation’s future, enabling stakeholders to comprehend and work towards the larger vision.


In essence, the benefits of strategic management extend far beyond the confines of planning; they permeate the fabric of the organisation, sculpting it into an agile, resilient, and forward-thinking entity poised for sustained success in an ever-evolving landscape.


Types of Strategic Management 


Strategic management manifests in various approaches, each encapsulating a sequence of steps to navigate an organisation towards its goals. While the fundamental steps might remain consistent, different methodologies exist to execute these steps. Here are some common types:


Classic Strategic Management


  • Identification: Evaluating the company’s current trajectory, including its goals and strategic direction.
  • Analysis: Scrutinising the existing processes and identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis).
  • Formation: Creating a clear action plan aligned with the identified goals, ensuring clarity and relevance.
  • Execution: Implementing the devised plan and ensuring stakeholders’ adherence to optimise efficiency.
  • Evaluation: Assessing the achieved outcomes against set goals and reflecting on the implementation’s effectiveness for potential revisions.


Design Thinking Approach


  • Empathise: Understanding stakeholders’ needs, aspirations, and challenges to gain insights.
  • Define: Clearly articulating the problem, setting objectives, and aligning with organisational goals.
  • Ideate: Generating innovative ideas and solutions without constraints.
  • Prototype: Developing scaled models or representations of solutions for testing.
  • Test: Iteratively testing prototypes, gathering feedback, and refining solutions before full-scale implementation.


Scenario Planning


  • Understanding Trends: Analyzing current trends and potential future developments.
  • Identifying Uncertainties: Pinpointing key variables or uncertainties that could significantly impact the organisation.
  • Scenario Construction: Develop multiple scenarios or narratives based on different combinations of uncertainties.
  • Analysis: Assessing the implications of each scenario on the organisation’s strategy.
  • Selection: Choosing the most plausible and beneficial scenarios to inform strategic decision-making.


Balanced Scorecard Approach


  • Financial Perspective: Setting financial goals and metrics related to revenue, profitability, and cost management.
  • Customer Perspective: Identifying customer-related objectives such as satisfaction, retention, and market share.
  • Internal Business Perspective: Focusing on processes and operations to enhance efficiency and quality.
  • Learning and Growth Perspective: Emphasizing employee development, innovation, and organisational culture.


These diverse approaches to strategic management offer unique lenses through which organisations can navigate complexities, innovate, and drive sustainable growth.


5 Steps of Strategic Management Process


The strategic management process is often conceptualised as a series of five key stages. These stages encompass:


  • Direction Definition: Initiating the process involves identifying specific goals and the intended direction for the organisation, setting the stage for strategic planning.


  • Current Situation Analysis: Following the initial step, there’s an in-depth analysis phase where tools like SWOT analysis are utilised. This involves assessing the organisation’s resources, such as budget, time, and personnel, to understand their strengths and weaknesses, enabling better strategic leverage.


  • Strategy Formulation and Action Planning: This phase involves devising a strategy and crafting a detailed plan of action tailored to the insights gained from the situational analysis aimed at accomplishing the established goals.


  • Plan Execution: Execution of the devised plan takes place at this stage. Implementation and ongoing monitoring occur, with room for adjustments based on changing circumstances, especially if employing a more adaptable strategy approach.


  • Plan Evaluation: The final step involves an evaluative process, determining whether the organisation has met its objectives. Feedback and analysis play a crucial role here, informing potential adjustments for an improved strategic path forward.


How Does Strategic Management Work?


Strategic management involves several critical components: establishing company objectives, scrutinising competitors’ actions, assessing internal organisational frameworks, evaluating existing strategies, and ensuring comprehensive implementation across the company.


There are two main approaches to strategic management:


  • Prescriptive strategic management involves crafting strategies proactively ahead of organisational needs or challenges.


  • Descriptive strategic management, on the other hand, entails implementing strategies reactively as and when the need arises. Both methodologies of strategic management incorporate established management principles and theories.


While the execution of strategies is the responsibility of upper management, innovative ideas, goals, or challenges can originate from any member of the organisation. Many companies enlist strategists whose primary role involves strategic thinking and planning to enhance overall company functionality.


In a Nutshell


Strategic management stands tall as the cornerstone of organisational triumph, melding vision with action and innovation with stability. Its significance lies in steering businesses through dynamic landscapes, aligning objectives with resources, and fostering resilience amid constant change. Embracing strategic management isn’t just a choice; it’s a necessity for businesses striving to thrive in today’s competitive arenas.


So, elevate your understanding and skills with the Certificate Program in Strategic Management and Business Essentials at Hero Vired, offered in collaboration with INSEAD. Gain expertise in navigating complexities, shaping strategies, and leading with foresight. Join this transformative journey toward mastering the art of strategic management.





Prior to delving deeper into strategic management, it's essential to establish definitions for nine crucial terms: competitive advantage, strategists, vision and mission statements, external opportunities and threats, internal strengths and weaknesses, long-term objectives, strategies, annual objectives, and policies.  
The system comprises four fundamental components that improve the efficiency of processes and the achievement of organisational goals. These components encompass internal and external environmental scanning, strategic or long-term planning for formulation, executing strategies, and evaluating and controlling strategies.
The six elements of the strategy model delineate six distinct facets that define the strategy: analysis, choice, positioning, design, storytelling, and commitment. These elements converge to construct a comprehensive perspective on the essence of strategy.
The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis serves as a framework employed to appraise a company's competitive stance and shape strategic planning. It evaluates both internal and external factors along with present and forthcoming potential.
The fundamental aspects of strategic management, known as the 7 C's, encompass Communication, Collaboration, Cooperation, Coordination, Culture, Champions, and Customers. These components hold significance in crafting a robust strategy and laying the groundwork for achieving success.

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