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Every programming language consists of operators, which are nothing but their supporting building blocks. These operators provide a solid foundation for beginners in this field.
There are various types of operators, each a basic symbol facilitating performing logical and mathematical processes. Operators in C and C++ are more like tools leveraged to perform bitwise, conditional, arithmetic, and logical operations.
Also, the different types of operators in C/C++ have a different yet vast number of sub-operators. In this article, we’ll learn everything about operators, including their various types.
Operators are the symbols or keywords that perform various operations on operands. They enable us to carry out specified arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /), relational operators (>, <, ==), logical operators (&&, ||, !), assignment operators (=), and more. They are used to manipulate data and control program flow in C programming. In other terms, an operator can be said to operate the operands.
C/C++ has 6 different types of operators. Let's go over each sort of operator's purpose in detail.
Mathematical operations like addition (+), multiplication (*), subtraction (-), division (/), and modulus (%) are all performed using arithmetic operators. All operations on numerical values (constants and variables) are carried out by this type of operator.
Below is the example of Arithmetic type of operator
#includeint main() { int a = 7,b = 5, c; c = a+b; printf("a+b = %d n",c); c = a-b; printf("a-b = %d n",c); c = a*b; printf("a*b = %d n",c); c = a/b; printf("a/b = %d n",c); c = a%b; printf("Remainder when a is divided by b = %d n",c); return 0; } Output: a+b = 12 a-b = 2 a*b = 35 a/b = 1 The remainder when a divided by b = 2
Relational operators and logical operators are combined to produce advanced conclusions.
Logical operators in programming, such as && (logical AND), || (logical OR), and ! (logical NOT), are used to evaluate conditions and return true or false based on the truth values of the operands. They are commonly used in conditional statements and loops to make decisions and control program flow.
Below is the example of logical type of operator
// Working of logical operators #includeint main() { int a = 15, b = 15, c = 20, results; results = (a == b) && (c > b); printf("(a == b) && (c > b) is %d n", results); results = (a == b) && (c < b); printf("(a == b) && (c < b) is %d n", results); results = (a == b) || (c < b); printf("(a == b) || (c < b) is %d n", results); results = (a != b) || (c < b); printf("(a != b) || (c < b) is %d n", results); results = !(a != b); printf("!(a != b) is %d n", results); results = !(a == b); printf("!(a == b) is %d n", results); return 0; } Output: (a == b) && (c > b) is 1 (a == b) && (c < b) is 0 (a == b) || (c < b) is 1 (a != b) || (c < b) is 0 !(a != b) is 1 !(a == b) is 0
Bit-by-bit operations are carried out by bitwise operators, which operate on bits. In these type of operators, mathematical operations are transformed into bit-level processing, which speeds up and simplifies implementation during computation and program compilation.
int a = 5, b = 9; // a = 5(00000101), b = 9(00001001) cout << (a ^ b); // 00001100 cout <<(~a); // 11111010
This type of operators are employed in the evaluation of two operands' values. For instance, determining whether one operand is greater than the other operand, whether one operand equals the other, etc. (==, >=, =) are a few relational operators.
Below is the example of rational type of operator
int a = 3; int b = 5; cout<<(a < b); // operator to check if a is smaller than b
The primary duty of an assignment operator in a program is to assign a value to a variable. A variable can be given the outcome of an expression by using assignment operators. The value assignment process for every variable depends heavily on this operator. = is the most popular assignment operator.
Below is the example of assignment type of operator
#includeint main() { int a = 7, b; b = a; // b is 7 printf("b = %dn", b); b += a; // b is 14 printf("b = %dn", b); b -= a; // b is 7 printf("b = %dn", b); b *= a; // b is 49 printf("b = %dn", b); b /= a; // b is 7 printf("c = %dn", c); b %= a; // b = 0 printf("b = %dn", b); return 0; } Output: b = 7 b = 14 b = 7 b = 49 b = 7 b = 0
An if-else block 21 single statement requires less effort when using a conditional or ternary operator. These types of operators was designed to work with conditional expressions.
Syntax: VariableName = (condition)? TrueValue : FalseValue; Example: a= (b>c) ? (b+c) : (b-c);
Below is a quick glance of comparison of all the major types of operators for your better understanding.
Operator | Explanation |
---|---|
Arithmetic Operators | Leveraged to carry out arithmetic operations on operands. |
Logical Operators | Leveraged to integrate/combine logical expressions. |
Bitwise Operators | Leveraged to carry out bitwise operations on operands. |
Relational Operators | Leveraged to compare two operands. |
Assignment Operators | Leveraged to assign any value to the operand. |
Below are the use cases and examples of different types of operators:
It’s crucial to use operators in accordance with recommended procedures. The following are some of the most significant best practices:
By adhering to these best practices, you can develop easy to comprehend and clear code.
In this guide, we have covered all about operators and major type sf operators used. Basically, operators are the fundamentals of any coding language and how they work. One needs to have extensive knowledge of operators to develop complicated code for operating various apps or software. For those who aspire to become master coders, having a solid grasp of their usage is essential.
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