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Data Analyst Interview Questions – For Freshers & Experienced


In today’s data-driven world, the demand for skilled data analysts is soaring higher than ever before. Companies crave experts who can unravel insights from complex datasets, turning numbers into actionable strategies. So, how can you ride this wave of opportunity? Equip yourself with a mix of analytical skills, a curious mindset, and a knack for storytelling through data. Dive into hands-on projects, stay curious about emerging technologies, and don’t shy away from continuously learning. Whether you’re deciphering trends or transforming raw data into business gold, the path to becoming a data analyst is an exciting journey of discovery and impact. Embrace the challenge, and let your analytical prowess shine!


Table of Content



What is a Data Analyst?


A data analyst is a professional adept at unravelling the intricacies of data through a systematic process of analysis, modelling, and interpretation. At the heart of their role lies the ability to draw meaningful insights from vast datasets, facilitating informed decision-making within an organisation. The demand for data analysts spans across every industry, underscoring the universal importance of data-driven insights in today’s business landscape. A data analyst’s primary responsibility is to navigate through extensive volumes of data, diligently searching for concealed patterns, trends, and correlations. By deciphering this diverse array of data, data analysts become instrumental in providing organisations with a comprehensive understanding of their current business state.


Data Analyst Data Analyst Interview Questions For Freshers


  • What are the responsibilities of a data analyst?

    A data analyst is responsible for analysing, modelling, and interpreting data to extract valuable insights and support informed decision-making within an organisation. They play a crucial role in handling large datasets and uncovering hidden patterns, trends, and correlations. Data analysts contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the business’s current state, aiding in strategic planning and process optimisation. Their responsibilities also include utilising various analytical tools and techniques to generate reports, visualisations, and recommendations based on data analysis.


  • What are some key skills required for a data analyst?

    • Technical Proficiency:

      Knowledge of reporting packages (e.g., Business Objects), coding languages (XML, JavaScript, ETL), and databases (SQL, SQLite).


    • Data Handling Skills:

      Ability to analyse, organise, collect, and disseminate large datasets accurately and efficiently.


    • Database Management:
      Proficiency in designing databases, constructing data models, and performing data mining and segmentation.


    • Statistical Analysis:
      Good understanding of statistical packages like SAS, SPSS, and Microsoft Excel for analyzing large datasets.


    • Problem-Solving and Teamwork:
      Effective problem-solving skills and the ability to collaborate in a team environment.


    • Communication Skills:
      Strong written and verbal communication skills for effective data communication.


    • Query and Reporting Proficiency:
      Excellent at writing queries, generating reports, and creating presentations to convey data insights.


    • Data Visualization:
      Understanding of data visualisation software, including Tableau and Qlik.


    • Algorithmic Expertise:
      The ability to create and apply accurate algorithms to datasets for effective problem-solving.


    • What is the process of data analysis?

      The process of data analysis involves several key steps aimed at transforming raw data into meaningful insights for informed decision-making. Here’s a concise overview:

      Collect Data:

      • Gather data from various sources storing it for further processing.
      • Clean and prepare the data by removing missing values and outliers.


      Analyse Data:

      • Once prepared, analyse the data by running models iteratively.
      • Validate the model to ensure it meets the specified requirements.


      Create Reports:

      • Implement the final model.
      • Generate and distribute reports containing valuable insights to stakeholders.


      In essence, data analysis encompasses assembling, cleaning, interpreting, and modelling data to facilitate profitable decision-making for businesses.



  • What are the challenges faced by data analysis?

    Data analysts face several challenges in their work, including:


    • Duplicate Entries and Spelling Errors:
      Issues with data quality arise from duplicate entries and spelling errors, impacting the accuracy of analyses.


    • Differences in Data Representation:
      Data obtained from various sources may have inconsistent representations, leading to delays in the analysis process when combining cleaned and organised data.


    • Incomplete Data:
      Dealing with incomplete data poses a challenge, as it can result in errors or faulty results during analysis.


    • Cleaning Poor-Quality Data:
      Extracting data from suboptimal sources requires significant time and effort in the cleaning process.


    • Unrealistic Timelines and Expectations:
      Meeting unrealistic timelines and expectations set by business stakeholders can create pressure on the analysis process.


    • Data Blending and Integration:
      Integrating data from multiple sources becomes challenging when there are no consistent parameters and conventions.


    • Insufficient Data Architecture and Tools:
      Inadequate data architecture and tools can impede the achievement of analytical goals within specified timelines. Addressing these challenges requires a combination of technical expertise, meticulous data cleaning, and effective communication with stakeholders to manage expectations realistically.


  • Explain data cleansing?

    Data cleansing, also referred to as data scrubbing or wrangling, is a vital process within data science. It involves the identification and subsequent modification, replacement, or deletion of incorrect, incomplete, inaccurate, irrelevant, or missing portions of data. The primary objective is to ensure that the data is accurate, consistent, and usable for analysis. Through meticulous data cleaning, organisations enhance the quality of their datasets, leading to more reliable and insightful results in the field of data science.


Data Analyst Interview Questions For Experienced


  • What are the characteristics of a good data model?
    • A good data model exhibits several key characteristics to ensure its effectiveness and relevance. Firstly, it should provide predictability in performance, allowing for precise estimation of outcomes. Adaptability is crucial, enabling the model to respond to changes in business demands.  Scalability is another essential feature, ensuring the model can proportionally accommodate shifts  in data volume. Ultimately, a successful data model should not only meet technical criteria but also deliver tangible and profitable benefits for clients or customers, aligning with the overarching goals of the organisation.


  • What are the disadvantages of Data analysis?
    • While data analysis offers invaluable insights, it comes with certain disadvantages. One notable concern is the potential compromise of customer privacy, raising risks in transactions, purchases, and subscriptions. Additionally, the complexity of analytical tools often demands prior training, making them challenging for novice users. Selecting the right analytics tool necessitates a significant level of skills and expertise. Lastly, there is a risk of misusing information obtained through data analytics, potentially targeting individuals based on political beliefs or ethnicities, emphasising the need for ethical considerations and responsible data handling practices.


  •  Explain Collaborative Filtering.
    • Collaborative Filtering is a recommendation system that utilises user behavioural data to analyse  interactions within a system. By examining the preferences and behaviours of other users, it filters out information to predict the interests of a specific user. This method operates on the assumption  that users who have agreed in their evaluations of certain items in the past will likely agree again in the future. The three key components of collaborative filtering are users, items, and interests. An illustrative example of collaborative filtering is evident on online shopping platforms, where phrases like “recommended for you” are used to suggest items based on the preferences of users with similar behaviours and interests.


  • What do you mean by clustering algorithms? Write different properties of clustering algorithms.
    • Clustering algorithms are techniques used to categorise data into groups or clusters, identifying  similar patterns within a dataset. The primary goal is to group objects in a way that those within the same cluster share similarities. Clustering algorithms exhibit several properties:
        • Flat or Hierarchical: Clustering can be organised in a flat structure, where clusters exist at the same level, or in a hierarchical structure, with clusters having sub-clusters, forming a tree-like hierarchy.


        • Hard or Soft: In hard clustering, each data point exclusively belongs to one cluster. In contrast, soft clustering allows for partial memberships, indicating the degree of association of a data point with multiple clusters.


        •  Iterative: Clustering algorithms often employ iterative processes, refining cluster assignments based on certain criteria until a stable solution is reached.


      • Disjunctive: Clusters are typically non-overlapping (disjunctive) in nature, meaning a data point  belongs to one cluster and not to others. Understanding these properties helps in selecting and implementing the appropriate clustering algorithm based on the specific requirements of the dataset and analysis objectives.


  •  Name some popular tools used in big data.
    • In order to handle Big Data, multiple tools are used. There are a few popular ones, as follows: 
      • Hadoop 
      • Scala 
      • Spark 
      • Hive 
      • Mahout
      • Flume, etc.


Some Other Data Analyst Interview Questions


Data Analyst Interview Question on Statistics:


  • How can you handle missing values in a dataset?
    • In handling missing values in a dataset, there are four key methods to consider. Firstly, Listwise Deletion involves excluding an entire record from analysis if any single value is missing.Alternatively, Average Imputation entails filling in missing values with the average value of other participants’ responses.For a more sophisticated approach, Regression Substitution uses multiple-regression analyses to estimate missing values.Lastly, Multiple Imputations generate plausible values based on correlations for missing data, incorporating random errors in predictions and averaging simulated datasets. The choice of method depends on the nature of the data and the specific requirements of the analysis.


  • What is Time Series analysis?
    • Time Series analysis is a statistical method focused on examining the ordered sequence of values for a variable at evenly spaced time intervals. This type of data is distinct in that observations are collected at adjacent time periods, establishing a correlation between them. Unlike cross-sectional data, which captures a snapshot at a single point in time, time series data provides insights into how a variable changes over time, making it valuable for understanding trends and patterns and forecasting future values.


  • How is Overfitting different from Underfitting?
    • Time Series analysis is a statistical method focused on examining the ordered sequence of values for a variable at evenly spaced time intervals. This type of data is distinct in that observations are collected at adjacent time periods, establishing a correlation between them. Unlike cross-sectional data, which captures a snapshot at a single point in time, time series data provides insights into how a variable changes over time, making it valuable for understanding trends and patterns and forecasting future values.


Data Analyst Interview Question on SQL:


  • How do you subset or filter data in SQL?
    • In SQL, you can subset or filter data using the SELECT statement along with the WHERE clause. The WHERE clause is used to specify a condition that must be met for a row to be included in the result set. Here’s a basic example:SELECT column1, column2, …FROM your_tableWHEREyour_condition; Let’s break it down:SELECT: Specifies the columns you want to retrieve in the result set.FROM: Specifies the table from which you are selecting the data.WHERE: Specifies the condition that must be met for a row to be included. For instance, if you have a table named employees and you want to retrieve the names and salaries of employees whose salary is greater than 50000, you would write:SELECT name, salary FROM employees WHERE salary > 50000;You can use various operators in the WHERE clause such as =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, as well as logical operators like AND, OR, and NOT to create complex conditions. Additionally, you can use the LIKE operator for pattern matching with strings. Here’s an example using LIKE:SELECT product_name, price FROM products WHERE product_name LIKE ‘A%’;This query retrieves product names and prices from the “products” table where the product name starts with ‘A’. Adjust these examples based on your specific requirements and table structure.


  • What is a Subquery in SQL?

    • A Subquery in SQL refers to a query embedded within another query, often known as a nested query or inner query. Its primary purpose is to augment the data being queried by the main query.  Subqueries come in two types: Correlated and Non-Correlated Queries. As an example, consider the following subquery that retrieves the name, email id, and phone number of an employee from the city of Texas:SELECT name, email, phone FROM employee WHERE emp_id IN (SELECT emp_id    FROM employee    WHERE city = ‘Texas’);In this case, the inner query, (SELECT emp_id FROM employee WHERE city = ‘Texas’), retrieves employee IDs from Texas, and the outer query uses this information to fetch additional details such as name, email, and phone number. Subqueries provide a flexible and powerful mechanism for extracting specific subsets of data based on conditions specified in the main query.


  • How do you write a stored procedure in SQL?
    • To write a stored procedure in SQL, you can follow these steps. Let’s consider an example where we create a stored procedure named squaresum1 to find the sum of the squares of the first N natural numbers:
      • Step 1: Create the stored procedure


                            CREATE PROCEDURE squaresum1

      •     @N INT — Step 2: Declare the variables


      •   Step 3: Write the formula using the SET statement


                                DECLARE @SumOfSquares INT


                                SET @SumOfSquares = 0


                               DECLARE @i INT


                                SET @i = 1


                                WHILE @i <= @N


                                    SET @SumOfSquares = @SumOfSquares + POWER(@i, 2)

                                    SET @i = @i + 1


          • Step 4: Print the values of the computed variable


                            PRINT ‘Sum of the squares for the first ‘ + CAST(@N AS VARCHAR(10)) + ‘ natural numbers is: ‘ + CAST(@SumOfSquares AS VARCHAR(10))




                            To run the stored procedure and display the sum of the squares for the first four natural numbers, you can use the EXEC command:


          • Step 5: Run the stored procedure using the EXEC command


                            EXEC squaresum1 @N = 4


                This stored procedure calculates the sum of the squares for the specified number of natural numbers and prints the result. Adjust the value of @N as                   needed to find the sum for a different number of natural numbers.


Data Analyst Interview Question on Excel:


      • How do you make a dropdown list in MS Excel?

                            To create a dropdown list in MS Excel, follow these steps:

        • Click on the “Data” tab in the ribbon at the top of the Excel window.
        • Under the “Data Tools” group, select “Data Validation.”
        • In the “Data Validation” dialog box, navigate to the “Settings” tab.
        • Under the “Allow” dropdown menu, choose “List.”
        • In the “Source” field, specify the range or values you want to include in the dropdown list.After completing these steps, a dropdown arrow will appear in the selected cell or  cells, and users can choose a value from the provided list. This feature is useful for data entry consistency and creating user-friendly interfaces within Excel workbooks.


      • What is the difference between COUNT, COUNTA, COUNTBLANK, and COUNTIF in Excel?

                     In Excel, COUNT, COUNTA, COUNTBLANK, and COUNTIF are distinct functions designed for different counting purposes:

      1. COUNT:
        Purpose: Counts the number of cells containing numeric values within a specified range.
        Example: =COUNT(A1:A10) would count the cells in the range A1 to A10 that contain numerical values.
      2. COUNTA:
        Purpose: Counts the number of non-blank cells in a given range, regardless of their content type.
        Example: =COUNTA(B1:B10) would count all non-blank cells in the range B1 to B10.
      3. COUNTBLANK:
        Purpose: Provides the count of blank cells within a specified range.
        Example: =COUNTBLANK(C1:C10) would count the number of empty cells in the range C1 to C10.
      4. COUNTIF:
        Purpose: Returns the count of cells that meet a specified condition.
        Example: =COUNTIF(D1:D10, “>50”) would count the cells in the range D1 to D10 that are greater than 50.In summary, COUNT focuses on numeric values, COUNTA considers all non-blank cells, COUNTBLANK counts empty cells, and COUNTIF allows counting based on a specified condition. Each function serves a specific counting requirement in Excel, providing flexibility for diverse data analysis scenarios.


      1. Can you provide a dynamic range in “Data Source” for a Pivot table?Yes, it is possible to establish a dynamic range in the “Data Source” for a Pivot table in Excel. The process involves creating a named range utilising the OFFSET function and then configuring the Pivot table to utilise this named range. 


Long Story Short:

A career as a data analyst is both challenging and rewarding, offering professionals the opportunity to unlock valuable insights from vast datasets. As the demand for data-driven decision-making continues to rise across industries, the role of a data analyst becomes increasingly crucial. Landing a position in this field often involves facing specific interview questions that assess both technical expertise and problem-solving skills. To excel in data analytics, individuals may consider honing their skills through comprehensive training programs.” Advanced Certification Program in Data Science & Analytics in collaboration with The University of Chicago” at Hero Vired, where you can help you gain in-depth knowledge and hands-on experience to propel your career in data analytics.





In anticipation of a data analyst interview, it is essential to conduct thorough research on the company, delve into common interview questions, refine your skills, and acquaint yourself with the interview structure. Additionally, highlighting your key competencies is crucial. During the interview, pose insightful questions and conclude with a follow-up thank-you email to leave a positive impression.
Typical duties for Data Analysts encompass utilising specialised tools and software to extract data, addressing queries related to data, establishing processes to enhance data efficiency, examining and interpreting trends within the data, and reporting these trends to contribute to the business's value.
A data analyst scrutinises data to uncover significant insights about a business's customers and to determine how the data can be leveraged to address challenges. Additionally, they convey this valuable information to company executives and other stakeholders.

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