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COALESCE in SQL – Understanding the Function from Scratch

In the dynamic realm of SQL, one function that stands as a pillar for its simplicity and utility is COALESCE. It’s a handy tool that often comes to support when dealing with null database queries. Whether you are a novice or professional SQL developer, comprehending COALESCE and its applications can impeccably enhance your query-writing skills. However, prior to delving deep into the world of COALESCE and propelling its nuance from scratch, let’s quickly comprehend what the NULL value in SQL is! 


Table of Content



What is a NULL Value in SQL?


In SQL, a Null value signifies a missing or unknown data entry within a database. It is imperative to individuate NULL from other values, such as zero or an empty string, as it especially denotes the absence of data rather than a specific value. 


When the field is null, it demonstrates that there is no valid data that has been provided or recorded for that particular field in the database. This unknown or missing data could be the result of many reasons, for example- an optional field not being filled, data yet to be entered, or an unknown value.


Managing NULL values is exceptionally crucial in database management as they can impact computations as well as query results. Functions such as COALESCE in SQL support to manage NULLs by substituting them with optional values or defaults. Hence, it is essential to comprehend NULL values for accurate data processing and balancing out data integrity within an SQL database. 


Understanding COALESCE in SQL


COALESCE is a function in SQL that gives back the first non-null expression among its arguments. It takes various parameters and examines them till a non-null value is found. Once a non-null value is found, COALESCE returns it, or else it returns NULL if entire expressions are null.


Basic Syntax


COALESCE(expression1, expression2, expression3, …)


expression1, expression2… These are the expressions that COALESCE examines. It can consider two or more expressions as arguments.


COALESCE with Examples


Let’s dive into some examples to comprehend how COALESCE works in SQL:


Example 1: Basic Usage




Output: 2


In this example, COALESCE examines the expressions sequentially. Since the first expression is NULL, it hops on to the next one. It returns 2 because it’s the first non-null value encountered.


Example 2: Handling NULL Values




Output: ‘Not NULL’


COALESCE gives back the first non-null value (‘Not NULL’ in this case). It’s a beneficial tool for eliminating null values with impactful and meaningful defaults in query results.


Example 3: Using COALESCE with Columns


Imagine a table ‘Employees’ with columns ‘FirstName’, ‘MiddleName’, and ‘LastName’. It is possible that some employees might not have a middle name. There, we can utilise COALESCE to manage this tactfully.


SELECT FirstName, COALESCE(MiddleName, ‘N/A’) AS MiddleName, LastName

FROM Employees;


In this query, if a person/employee doesn’t have a middle name (i.e., MiddleName is NULL), ‘N/A’ will be displayed instead.




  • Simplifies Query Logic:  Rather than writing down intricate CASE statements to manage null values, COALESCE in SQL offers concise and readable options.


  • Improves Data Presentation: By substituting null values with meaningful defaults, COALESCE improves the clarity as well as usability of query results.


  • Enhances Maintainability: Queries utilising COALESCE are less complicated to understand and maintain, nullifying the risk of errors at the time of development and troubleshooting.


  • Concatenating Strings: When concatenating strings from different columns or expressions, COALESCE in SQL makes sure that null values do not disrupt the resulting string, providing a precise and cleaner output.


  • Dealing with Aggregated Results:
    When performing aggregations or calculations involving null values, COALESCE helps make sure that the final output is accurate and meaningful.


COALESCE Vs. Other SQL Functions


COALESCE is an imperative function in SQL, but it is imperative to understand its distinctions from other SQL functions. Let’s see how COALESCE differs from some common SQL functions:



Function Purpose Syntax
COALESCE Returns first non-null value COALESCE(value1, value2, …)
ISNULL Replaces null value with alternate ISNULL(value1, value2)
NULLIF Compares two values, returns null if equal NULLIF(value1, value2)
CASE Performs conditional logic CASE WHEN condition THEN result ELSE else Result END




Nested COALESCE is a handy method for dealing with NULL values in your data, specifically in SQL queries. Below is a brief explanation. Get a glimpse.


Nested COALESCE typically involves placing a COALESCE function within another COALESCE function. This helps in building a chain of examinations where the function keeps evaluating for non-NULL values until it finds one or reaches the end of the list.


  • Successive Default Values: This approach is exceptionally useful for defining backup alternatives in case the primary data point is missing or unknown (NULL). The COALESCE function dives through each option in the chain till the value to return is found.


  • Ensuring Data Consistency: By utilising nested COALESCE, you can keep issues at bay that are caused by NULL values in your queries. It guarantees that a valid value is always returned, no matter if it’s a default option from further down the chain or anything else. 

Example :

    COALESCE(product_name, product_code),
    COALESCE(sku, ‘N/A’)
) AS preferred_identifier
FROM products;


To Wrap It Up


Without a doubt, COALESCE is an impactful yet straightforward function in SQL for handling and managing null values efficaciously. By decoding and understanding its syntax and applications, you can streamline your query-writing process and produce cleaner, more robust code.


Whether you are constructing reports, extracting data, or performing data transformations, COALESCE is a great tool to have in your SQL arsenal. Hence, the next time you encounter null values in your database queries, remember COALESCE and its ability to simplify your SQL code. 


If you are someone willing to elevate skill sets and knowledge to climb ladders in Data Science, then there are ample online platforms like Hero Vired providing certification courses such as DevOps cloud engineering course certification, Certificate Programme in Full Stack Development with Specialization for Web and Mobile, etc. You can join any as per your choice and interest.





In SQL, the COALESCE function acts as a lifesaver when dealing with NULL values. It goes through a list of expressions and returns the very first one that isn't null, preventing errors and making sure that your queries have meaningful data.
Both COALESCE and ISNULL manage NULL values. However, COALESCE can examine multiple expressions and return the first non-NULL value, whereas ISNULL only replaces NULL with an optional value for a single expression.
Yes! COALESCE can handle multiple columns or expressions in SQL. It examines each expression in sequence and returns the first non-NULL value encountered.
COALESCE is helpful in multiple scenarios, for example, refining query results by replacing NULL values, ensuring data consistency, handling default values, and enhancing data readability.
Absolutely! COALESCE can be utilised for string concatenation by unifying various string values from different columns into a single outcome. It assists in amalgamating strings while managing NULL values efficiently.

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