Explain the Characteristics of Computer System

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A computer system, a fast electronic device that processes visual and raw data, performs arithmetic and logical operations and produces output, is a marvel of modern technology. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of this powerful tool, which are classified into Speed, Accuracy, Diligence, Versatility, Reliability, Consistency, Memory, Storage Capacity, Remembrance Power, and game-changing Automation.


What is a Computer?


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A computer is a programmable electronic device that processes data to perform various tasks according to predefined instructions. It consists of hardware and software components that work together to input, process, output, and store data. It was developed by Charles Babbage between 1833 and 1871. He worked there for nearly 40 years.


Components of Computer System


A computer system consists of several essential components that work together to process data and perform various computer tasks, such as programming, gaming, writing, data processing, etc. These components are categorized into hardware and software components.


Hardware Components


  • Central Processing Unit: This is a hardware component that is used to interpret and execute instructions from software programs. It performs arithmetic and logical operations and controls the overall operation of the computer system.
  • RAM(Random Access Memory): Random Access Memory(RAM) stores the data and instructions that the CPU needs while executing tasks. It allows fast access and retrieval of data during processing. RAM is a volatile memory. It means, It loses its contents when the computer is turned off.
  • Storage Devices: Storage divides and stores the data in the computer system permanently or semi-permanently. Let’s discuss storage types in computer systems.

Hard Disk Drives(HDDs): This is the magnetic storage devices that store data on a spinning disk. It is available at a very low cost.

Solid State Drives(SSDs): This is a flash memory storage device that is faster than a Hard Disk. It is available at a very high cost in the market.

                  – Optical Drives: These devices, such as CD/DVD drives used for reading and writing optical discs.

                 – USB Flash Drives: It is a portable storage device. It is also used as flash memory for data storage.


  • Motherboard: It is the primary component of our computer system. It connects all the components of a computer system, providing pathways for data transfer between the CPU, memory, storage devices, and input/output. This component also adds the CPU cooling fan.
  • Input Devices: These devices allow users to enter data and instructions into the computer system. Some common devices are Keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras and microphones.
  • Output Devices: This device is used to show the output to the user. Some command devices are monitors(displays), printers, speakers, projectors and headphones,
  • Power Supply Unit (PSU): This device converts electrical power from an outlet into usable power for the computer components. This device provides stable voltages and currents to ensure reliable operations.

Software Components


  • Operating System(OS): An operating system is software that interacts with hardware and software and manages all the hardware, such as memory, storage, etc. Many operating systems are available, such as Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix.
  • Application Software: Application software designed for performing specific tasks for users. For example, word processors, web browsers, spreadsheets, media players, graphic design tools, games, etc.


What are the Characteristics of a Computer?


In this section, we will see the characteristics of computer systems:


  • Speed: The first and most important characteristic of a computer system is speed. The computer can process information at gigahertz(GHz). Speed is very useful in scientific calculations, video editing, and complex simulations.
  • Accuracy: Computer systems perform calculations and process data with a high degree of accuracy. Errors typically occur due to incorrect input or software bugs, not because of the computer’s hardware.
  • Automation: Our World is quickly moving toward AI. The computer must conduct tasks automatically after instructions are programmed. This capability is crucial for tasks that require repetitive and consistent execution, such as batch processing and automated manufacturing.
  • Memory: A computer can store millions of records. Computer memory storage has different measured units, such as Bytes, KiloBytes, MegaBytes, Gigabytes(GB), and TeraBytes.
  • Reliability: Computers are very reliable compared to humans. Computer results never differ unless the input varies. The computer’s output depends on the input. When an input is wrong, the output will also be wrong.
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Limitations of Computer System


Computers have lots of advantages. They also have some disadvantages:


  • Lack of Intelligence: Computers operate based on predefined instructions and algorithms without true understanding or reasoning. Computers cannot think independently or adapt to new situations without human intervention.
  • Limited Creativity: Although the computer can generate output that may seem creative, it does so based on a program instructed by the programmer. It lacks genuine creativity and the ability to innovate beyond its programming.
  • Data Quality Dependence: A computer’s output depends on the quality of the input data. Incorrect, incomplete, or biased data can lead to flawed results, encapsulated in the principle of “Garbage in Garbage Out”.
  • Security Vulnerabilities: Computer systems are very vulnerable to various cyber threats, including viruses, malware, hacking, and phishing attacks. Therefore, cybersecurity requires constant vigilance and sophisticated protection measures



In this article, we learned about the characteristics of computer systems that are essential for achieving their potential and their limitations. Computers are distinguished by their speed, accuracy, and ability to automate repetitive tasks, making them invaluable tools in various domains. Their vast storage capacity allows for the retention and retrieval of massive amounts of data. As technology continues to evolve, the role of computers in our daily lives and industries will only grow, enhancing productivity and innovation by leveraging computer strengths and addressing their limitations



No, computers do not suffer from tiredness or loss of concentration like human beings. They can perform repetitive and continuous tasks without interruption and maintain consistent performance over time.
Yes, Computers can be programmed using various programs to perform specific tasks by using C++, Java, C, Python and other programming languages. This programming allows for the creation of customized software solutions.
Modern computers are designed to be user-friendly, offering interactive interfaces such as graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that allow users to easily input data and receive immediate feedback. Input enhances the user interactivity with the computer system.
Computers can connect and communicate with other devices through various networking technologies, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. These technologies facilitate data sharing, remote access, and collaborative work.

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