Data Science



Top 10 Programming Languages You Should Learn in 2022

Since the personal computer made itself part and parcel of our daily lives, our dependency on technology has only been increasing. We now live in a highly digitized environment, where everything from our gadgets, smart devices, to even home appliances are interconnected and help make our lives simpler.

Programming languages play a big role in making these modern features a possibility, enabling humans to interact with machines to perform specific tasks.

With the future enabling more of such possibilities, software development and programming languages will play a major role in our personal life and business processes.

According to Developer Nation, there are 26.9 million software developers worldwide right now, and the industry is anticipated to grow further by 22%. The average annual salary of a software developer is $73,976, with unique perks that make it a highly lucrative career option. 

If you have a background in development or have expertise in some of the top programming languages, you will be poised for success and have a promising career in 2022.

But with over 700 programming languages already in existence, it can be very confusing for beginners and those just starting their career in programming to know precisely which skills and programming language they should focus on.

To help you make this decision and understand some of the best programming languages to learn, we’ve compiled a list of the top 10 programming languages based on current demand and future scope.

The most popular programming languages to learn in 2022

1. Python

The Python programming language is one of the most popular and easy programming languages for beginners to learn.

Python is a free, open-source programming language used extensively for app development, deep learning applications, 2D and 3D animations, and scientific and computational applications.

It is easy to integrate with web services, has a user-friendly GUI-based desktop application, and supports common commands and tasks. It also has an extensive library and developer forums on platforms like Reddit, StackOverflow, and others.

Python is the best programming language to learn, according to the TIOBE and PYPL Indexes, with a strong hiring demand. Top companies are aggressively hiring Python developers, and as of May 2022, the average Python developer can get an annual salary of up to $114,578.

This makes it ideal for Python programming beginners, who can quickly learn the programming language and maximize their chances of getting hired by a top company.

Source: Python Tricks

Where is Python used?

  • Backend development
  • App development
  • Machine learning and deep learning applications

Top companies that use Python

  • YouTube
  • Quora
  • Pinterest
  • Instagram
  • Abacus
  • FreeCAD
  • Used for gaming development of popular video games like Civilization IV, Vegas Trike, Toontown
  • 2D and 3D animations in apps like Blender, Inkspace, and Autodesk

Pros of Python

  • Has an extensive library and open-source frameworks that support multiple applications
  • GUI support
  • It can be used with other applications built using Java and C and has variants like JPython, CPython, etc.
  • Highly versatile use cases ranging from data science, web development, app development, game development, IoT, and more
  • Python is used to write automation scripts, making it highly effective in machine learning and artificial intelligence programs

Cons of Python

  • Python programming language uses a high number of resources, which end up taking a lot of space and require high memory consumption
  • Python does not run natively on mobile devices. To fill this void, iOS development is performed with Swift while Android is performed using Kotlin or Java
  • Running multithreaded programs is not possible on Python

Who should learn Python?

  • Software Engineers
  • Data Scientists
  • App Developers
  • Ethical Hackers or Data Security Experts

2. JavaScript

A backend language used by 97% of websites, JavaScript is one of the core languages in the technology world, especially when it comes to the World Wide Web.

JavaScript, a high-level programming language that came into existence in 1995, was initially meant only for web browsers. However, as time passed, it has evolved to be used widely in multiple applications such as gaming, mobile, web, and more.

JavaScript is the most common coding language today and the easiest programming language for beginners.

It also has a sizeable online community and resources with top-notch usability, making it one of the most popular programming languages in 2022. 

Image Credits: Hubspot

Where is JavaScript used?

  • Web development
  • Game development
  • Mobile app development

Top companies that use JavaScript

  • Microsoft
  • PayPal
  • Netflix
  • Uber
  • Facebook
  • Google
  • LinkedIn
  • eBay
  • Walmart

Pros of JavaScript

  • One of the easiest programming languages to learn
  • Platform independent and provides excellent controls over the web page
  • Well-organized codebase and readily available resources with a large community
  • Can run easily on the client-side browser with no pre-installations required
  • Reduces demand on the website server

Cons of JavaScript

  • As the program code executes on the client-side computer, it can sometimes be used for malicious purposes. This is why most browsers disable Javascript from unknown sources.
  • Each browser interprets JavaScript differently, making it challenging to write cross-browser code. 

Who should learn JavaScript?

  • Web Developers
  • App Developers
  • Back-end Engineer
  • Mobile App Developers
  • Game Developers

3. Go

Developed by Google, Go is a programming language that is used for building APIs and web applications. The language came into existence in 2007 and was created to be used specifically to handle multicore and networked systems and massive codebases.

Go is one of the fastest-growing programming languages, widely used for its agility and performance. Plus, Go developers are in huge demand, especially with Google and other top companies. 

Image Credits: DevOps School

According to Glassdoor, a Go developer’s average annual salary is $141,654, making it the future of programming languages. So, if you are looking to learn a language to future-proof your career, you can think about learning Go in 2022.  

Where is Go used?

  • Web development
  • Game development
  • Mobile app development
  • Network programming
  • Big data management

Top Companies that use Go

  • Google
  • Dropbox
  • Twitch
  • BBC
  • Medium
  • Uber

Pros of Go

  • Go is easy to learn for beginners
  • It supports automation processes and is widely used in AI and ML programming
  • Considered a minimalist language as it has a transparent code that is simple and easy to use
  • Compatible with several applications, operating systems, and devices

Cons of Go

  • Programs running GoLang require high memory and processing power, even for extremely simple programs
  • Since it is a modern language, the Go developer community is not as extensive and responsive as that of other languages

Who should learn Go?

  • Data Scientists
  • Application Developers
  • Web Developers

4. Java

Java is arguably one of the most popular programming languages and has been in use for a long time.

It is currently being used in over 3 billion devices, ranging from desktop applications, mobile applications, web development, cloud applications, artificial intelligence, and more.

It is a web and application development language widely adopted in Big Data and is the third most sought-after language for hiring globally. 

Image Credits: Freepik

The popularity of Java has a lot to do with its open-source framework, extensive library, and object-oriented structure that allows developers to Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA).

This makes the apps built using Java extremely scalable and portable across platforms, operating systems, and devices. 

Where is Java used?

  • eCommerce
  • App development
  • Mobile development
  • Web development

Top companies that use Java

  • Google
  • Amazon
  • YouTube
  • Adobe
  • Flipkart 
  • Instagram

Pros of Java

  • A highly scalable object-oriented programming language, platform-independent, and offers WORA capabilities
  • Highly secure frameworks
  • Extensive library and resources
  • Widely used in multiple applications and sectors

Cons of Java

  • Slightly complex to learn for beginners
  • Java programming requires multiple complex syntaxes, leading to programmers preferring C++ or Python
  • It does not have a backup facility
  • The GUI of Java is not up to the latest standards that are offered by modern languages like Python, R, C#, and others

Who should learn Java?

  • App Developers
  • Mobile Developers
  • Web Developers
  • Big Data Developers
  • AI/ML Developers

5. Kotlin

Unveiled in 2011 by JetBrains, the first version of this general-purpose programming language was released in 2016.

Kotlin is interoperable with Java and other functional programming languages and is primarily used for Android app development, web app development, and server-side app development.

Although relatively lesser known, Kotlin developers are in huge demand given their niche expertise and can earn an average of $136,000 annually

Image Credits: Kotlin

Where is Kotlin used?

  • Server-side development
  • Client-side web development
  • Android applications

Top companies that use Kotlin

  • Coursera
  • Uber
  • Trello
  • Amazon
  • Pinterest

Pros of Kotlin

  • Lighter than Java and other programming languages, making it apt for mobile
  • Easy to adopt and fully compatible with Java
  • Completely interoperable
  • Enhanced security features and concise code structure

Cons of Kotlin

  • Fluctuations in compilation speeds
  • No static keyword
  • Currently restricted to the Android platform

Who should learn Kotlin?

  • Android Developers
  • Mobile Developers
  • App Developers

6. PHP

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that continues to hold importance even today.

PHP was among the first server-side languages that could work with HTML to add multiple features to a website and is still used by PHP developers to a large extent.

Given its usability and ease of use, even today, a notable 80% of websites globally use PHP as their server-side programming language. 

Image Credits: Freepik

Where is PHP used?

  • Website development

Top Companies that use PHP

  • Yahoo
  • Wikipedia
  • Facebook

Pros of PHP

  • Simple and easy to learn
  • Highly secure against cyberattacks
  • Compiles faster compared to other programming languages

Cons of PHP

  • Limited functionality for modern requirements
  • Cannot support a large number of apps

Who should learn PHP?

  • Web Developers
  • Server-Side Programmers

7. C#

C# is a programming language that works on the .NET framework and was developed by Microsoft in 2000. The language works on the C++ programming framework and is highly effective in making desktop applications and games.

C# is best suited for Windows, Android, and iOS, which is still being used to make 34% of mobile games. The C# framework also forms the basis of 90% of Samsung Gear and 53% of all Oculus Rift VR.

Image Credits: Pexel

Where is C# used?

  • Game Development
  • Desktop Application Development
  • Mobile Application Development
  • Virtual Reality

Top Companies that use C#

  • Bing
  • Dell
  • Microsoft Visual Studio
  • MarketWatch
  • Accenture
  • Alibaba Travels

Pros of C#

  • Easy to learn for beginners
  • It can be fully integrated with .NET libraries 
  • Scalable and interoperable
  • Open source with an extensive library and support

Cons of C#

  • Poor GUI
  • Less flexible compared to other programming languages due to its dependency on the .NET framework

Who should learn C#?

  • App Developers
  • Game Developers

8. Swift

An open-source programming language developed by Apple, Swift is primarily used to create Linux and Mac applications and supports the programming language Objective-C.

Swift requires low coding skills compared to other programming languages, making it highly easy to use and implement.

While most iOS applications are developed using Swift, the famous game Flappy Bird was also developed using Swift, which makes it an excellent choice for those who want to explore a career in app development for the iOS ecosystem. 

Image Credits: Blockchain Simplified

Where is Swift used?

  • IBM
  • WordPress
  • SoundCloud
  • Mozilla Firefox

Pros of Swift

  • Easy to learn and requires relatively low coding skills
  • Faster compiling speed compared to other languages
  • Clean syntax and easy to navigate

Cons of Swift

  • Still a relatively new language, with fewer resources and support
  • Poor interoperability with other third-party tools
  • Overly reliant on the Apple ecosystem 

Who should learn Swift?

  • Apple App Developers

9. R

R is a statistical and graphical programming language that is widely used for enabling advanced data analytics.

Like its predecessor, the S language, R provides various benefits to developers, such as advanced analytical functions, including linear and non-linear modeling, time-series analytics, classifications, clustering, and more. 

The open-source language efficiently runs on various UNIX platforms, Windows, and macOS systems, making it popular across several domains.

It is highly important in business, financial, academic research, and telecom sectors, which require advanced analytical features for performing data analysis and statistical calculations. 

Given its specific niche and business use, expertise in R can help you build a bright career, especially if you are interested in exploring a career as a data scientist or data analyst. 

Where is R used?

  • Data analysis
  • Machine learning algorithms
  • Statistical interface

Top companies that use R

  • Airbnb
  • American Express
  • Amazon
  • Google
  • LinkedIn
  • Flipkart

Pros of R

  • Effective for data handling and storage
  • Extended libraries for interactive graphics
  • Supports object-oriented programming
  • Enables cross-platform operation

Cons of R

  • Not an easy programming language for beginners, given its steep learning curve
  • R packages function slower compared to other programming languages like MATLAB and Python
  • It does not support dynamic or 3D graphics like its predecessor, S language
  • Utilizes more memory compared to Python, as it requires all the data to be in a single place and is not ideal for Big Data implementations 

Who should learn R?

  • Data Scientists
  • Data Analysts
  • Qualitative and Financial Analysts

10. NoSQL

NoSQL is a non-relational SQL (Structured Query Language) that uses a non-tabular database to store data and retrieve information.

Unlike SQL, which uses tabular queries and structures, NoSQL databases go beyond the traditional structure and offer developers the ability to store large amounts of unstructured data.

This makes it extremely easy for NoSQL-based platforms to store unstructured data and allows them to adapt to changing requirements. 

Image Credits: Technology Point

Where is NoSQL used?

  • Database management
  • Data analytics
  • Business reports and management

Popular NoSQL Databases

  • MongoDB
  • Apache CouchDB
  • Apache HBase
  • Oracle NoSQL Database
  • Cassandra
  • Amazon DynamoDB

Pros of NoSQL

  • Ideal for storing massive amounts of data
  • Relatively cheaper to install compared to SQL servers and storage systems that require expensive proprietary systems
  • Easy to maintain and administer
  • Provides high scalability and flexibility to developers

Cons of NoSQL

  • NoSQL models are highly focused on Web 2.0 applications and are not ideal for modern app demands
  • Less support compared to relational model vendors
  • Not as functional and stable compared to SQL models, which have been around for more time

Who should learn NoSQL?

  • Data Scientists
  • Content Management Systems (CMS) Developers
  • Web Developers
  • App Developers

 

While there are hundreds of programming languages to choose from, only a few are preferred and stay relevant despite changing technology and business needs.

The programming languages mentioned here are sure to be of importance not just in 2022 but also in the long term and should be at the top of your list if you are looking for a career shift or want to upskill yourself.

While it is essential for professional developers to understand multiple programming concepts and languages, just knowing or coding in several programming languages may not help you advance up the ladder. You also need expertise in the specific domain and a niche skillset in the selected technology. 

Choose from the shortlisted easy programming languages for beginners and start leveling up in your career. Moreover, do not forget to gain a background on the business implementation and uses of these programming languages.

Hero Vired offers specially designed programming languages for beginners courses that focus not just on technical skill sets but also on how to implement them for specific business uses.

Our Certificate Program in Full Stack Development with Cloud for Web and Mobile and Advanced Certificate Program in Full Stack Development with MERN and Cloud Computing are ideal for working professionals and freshers who want to gain technical and functional expertise across frontend and backend development as well as deployment.

These programs focus on teaching the fundamentals of computer programming languages for beginners. They include a mix of live online instructor-led classes as well as self-paced learning models to help you build and deploy cloud applications and shape your career as a Full Stack Web Developer.

So, if you are a technology enthusiast, head on to Hero Vired today to browse through the many online courses we offer to kickstart your career in programming.

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